DNA Enzyme Repair
It is a well-established fact that UV radiation from the sun leads to DNA damage. Damage to the skin’s DNA can lead to the development of skin cancers, and likely contributes to skin aging. The precise role of DNA damage in skin aging has not yet been clearly explained, as the genes that cause skin aging have not been fully identified to date.
New scientific advances have clearly demonstrated that our body’s own DNA Repair Enzymes play a critical and final step in cell protection against oxidative stress as a result of UV exposure, other environmental sources of toxic free radicals or even endogenous Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) production. The Bespoke Skin Technology Co-Founders were co authors on a paper showing that Australian women age 10-20 years faster than other countries, and, that longer range wavelengths may be to blame for this; have a read here.
Our research shows that UV protection may not be enough on its own. We need to repair the damage from whatever cause, including pollutants, cigarettes, daily living and cell respiration and longer wavelengths from sunlight.
DNA damage in the skin can be measured, so it is possible to track the deterioration or restoration of the cells. Ultimately, the accumulation of DNA lesions can cause cell death, cell mutation and skin cancer; a bleak picture indeed.
Now for the good news; DNA repair enzymes! We do know that topically applying these DNA repair enzymes enhances the body’s natural DNA repair process. Numerous laboratory and clinical studies now show that topically applied DNA repair enzymes, such as Micrococcus lysate, Arabidopsis Thaliana Extract, and Plankton extract can repair this DNA damage. Bespoke harnesses all three of these ingredients to aid the DNA repair process.
Clinical studies have shown there are other benefits from topical DNA repair enzymes:
- A decrease in potentially precancerous sunspots called solar keratoses
- A decrease in the development of basal cell carcinomas (BCC)
- A decrease in the development of DNA mutations (damage), which can be measured
- A decrease in solar elastosis in the dermis of treated individuals. This is a sign of skin aging seen in sun-damaged individuals and may be associated with unwanted pigmentation and loss of skin luminosity, and
- A decrease in telomere shortening
As we now know, DNA damage from things like sun exposure leads to signs of skin aging such as wrinkles and fine lines; roughness; dark spots and pigmentation; sagging; redness and a loss of the skin’s luminosity. Bespoke Skin Technology can protect your skin from the ravages of the sun and other environmental stressors with its carefully formulated combination of ingredients, with a hyper focus on these great DNA repair enzymes.
Around the world, a consistently major concern regarding the largest organ inour body, is aging. The skin is truly remarkable, as it protects us from the outside world, and is often one of the first things others notice about us. Having luminous, glowing, youthful skin is something we all seek. To achieve this, our precious skin needs protection from sun damage and the aging process.
There are two main types of skin aging:
- Intrinsic - this is controlled by your genes
- Extrinsic - this refers to external factors, which we can definitely do something about.
It has been estimated that sun exposure accounts for up to 80-90% of extrinsic skin aging. Other important factors contributing to extrinsic aging include:
- cigarette smoke
- ozone, and
- poor nutrition.
Our skin is bombarded by these elements on a daily basis. The result is *oxidative stress from UV radiation and other environmental factors leading to aging, by damaging DNA, lipids and protein in the cells of our skin. Now we know these ramifications, let’s understand how these factors lead to skin aging, and how the damage manifests itself in our skin.
Sun exposure/UV radiation
These factors have been proven to cause the following events, which contribute to sun damage and skin aging:
- The most important adverse effect of sun exposure on your skin isto damage its DNA. DNA is the blueprint via which all of the cells inour body function and reproduce. Damage to this critical blueprint, can lead to mistakes in the DNA reproduction/replication process and precancerous lesions or skin cancers
- UV radiation can also impair the skin’s immune system, making it less able to detect, recognise and remove cancer cells
- Vitamin D has both anti inflammatory and positive immune modulating effects when applied to the skin. Low Vitamin D levels may be related to a poorer outlook from skin cancer. You can read more here.
- Damage the scaffolding of the skin, which is crucial to maintaining its plumpness and youthful glow.
On top of all of the above, UV radiation also: decreases the production of collagen which is a crucial support structure in the dermis, AND increases levels of enzymes, which destroy collagen and elastin (another scaffolding protein which gives your skin its bounce).
Basically, we all know by now that prolonged sun exposure and UV radiation aren’t good. So, what do we do? How easy is it to combat these bad guys?
It's as simple as:
- Hats and clothing
- unscreen ingredients such as ZINC OXIDE (link to index) to block the effects of sun on the skin. Zinc oxide is a physical sunscreen ingredient which reflects the sun’s light to stop it penetrating the skin.
We also know that there are different perceptions around what constitutes appropriate sun-safe attire and sunscreen application.
We also know from studies that sunscreens are not 100% effective at blocking UV radiation and that most people apply only 25-50% of the recommended amount of sunscreen.
Just over 50% of energy from the sun arrives on Earth in the form of infrared radiation. Sunscreen does not block Infrared radiation, which penetrates the skin more deeply than UV-B and UV-A, and causes free radical formation and accelerated skin aging.
In addition to sun exposure, other environmental stressors (cigarette smoke, pollution, ozone) damage our skin and contribute to aging via the production of toxic free radicals or "reactive oxygen species" (ROS).
ROS are formed naturally through normal human metabolism, AND produced as a result of exogenous factors such as UV exposure, air pollution, smoking, radiation, alcohol use, exercise, inflammation, and exposure to certain drugs or heavy metals such as iron.
ROS are implicated in the overall intrinsic aging process, photoaging, carcinogenesis (cancer formation) and inflammation. They attack DNA, lipids and proteins in our skin’s cells, playing a significant role in intrinsic and extrinsic skin aging.
ROS, like UV radiation can damage the skin’s collagen and elastin, as well as activating the enzymes that break down our skin’s scaffolding. They are bad news! The body has developed defense mechanisms, including a variety of antioxidants, forming an antioxidant network – this intervenes at different levels to combat oxidative stress.
The antioxidant defense in our skin can be overwhelmed by exogenous sources of stress, ultimately leading to cutaneous damage.
Fortunately, we can apply topical antioxidants to help prevent the aging process, and support the skin’s fight against environmental stressors. Numerous scientific studies can attest to the benefits of antioxidants in "preventing aging."
*Oxidative stressis the state our body is put in when the levels of antioxidants in our body are not high enough to counteract the damaging effect of free radicals.
When looking for an anti-aging skincare line, it’s important that intrinsic aging (genetics) is addressed, and not just extrinsic aging, caused by sun exposure, pollution etc (read more about intrinsic vs extrinsic aging here). The genetic aging process is largely controlled by progressive telomere shortening, with an input from oxidative damage to telomeres and other cell components from our body's day-to-day metabolic processes.
Scientists consider this shortening a measure of cellular aging, a bit like an internal clock. When telomeres become "too short", cells can no longer divide, and perish. It is important to note that sun exposure (UV radiation) also accelerates telomere shortening.
The key is understanding telomeres, is why they shorten and how we can slow this process in order to maximise the anti-aging effect from skincare products.
So what are telomeres? They are critical chains of DNA that sit on the ends of our chromosomes and protect them. Their presence prevents deterioration and unraveling of DNA. They are a bit like the tips on the ends ofour shoelaces. When our cells divide and replicate, the telomere portion of our DNA cannot be copied. So, every time our cells reproduce themselves, the telomere at the ends of our chromosomes shorten. Thus, with age, our telomeres (and the chromosome as a whole) shorten.
It is important to note that sun exposure (UV radiation) also accelerates telomere shortening, hence why it’s important to target damage caused by extrinsic factors for the benefit of the epidermis (top layer of the skin), as well as the telomeres deeper down.
Telomeres are also thought to play a role in cancer development. Telomerase is an enzyme found in the epidermis of our skin. This enzyme lengthens and stabilises telomeres. It is believed to act against excessive telomere loss in the human epidermis throughout the lifelong regeneration process.
Knowing that telomere shortening is directly related to the aging process, we wanted to target this in Bespoke Skin Technology products to help stabilise telomeres. We do this in our Complete Daily Armour product using an exciting cosmeceutical ingredient called Teprenone. Teprenone acts by releasing particular proteins to protect cells under stress. The idea of these proteins is to give cells resilience and protection from inflammation, free radicals, and other damage to DNA.
We believe Teprenone is an excellent choice for anti-aging skincare due to its DNA-protective effects. It helps to protect skin from damage, and thus delay or repair aging.
Additionally, resveratrol is an excellent antioxidant that can be useful in combating the shortening of our telomeres. Bespoke Skin Technology utilises this ingredient in the Night Shield and Zinc Stick formulations to deliver a healthy dose of resveratrol to your skin.
Of note, DNA repair enzymes have also been shown to reduce telomere shortening in careful scientific studies. Which leads us to an exciting new class of cosmeceutical ingredients that we have harnessed to equip you with an arsenal to fight against this inevitable aging process. Read more about DNA repair enzymes here.
Many people are aware of the concept of antioxidants, and have heard they are good for you. But why are they? And how do they work?
They are as they sound; they don't like oxidants! Your environment with its bombardment from sun, pollution and foods creates oxidation and byproducts of this oxidation are really harmful like bad car exhaust and need to be neutralised. Antioxidants inhibit environmental oxidative stress by blocking toxic free radicals. Antioxidants therefore act as a backstop to scavenge the free radicals formed by pollution, ozone, cigarette smoke, and, when sunscreens are unable to block all UV radiation or any IR radiation.
The other key thing to understand is how to use antioxidants most effectively. This is called the antioxidant network. We know that antioxidants are in fact far more powerful when used together, than individually.
Useful antioxidants with a wealth of clinical studies attesting to their efficacy include:
- Niacinamide (Vitamin B3)
- Ferulic Acid
- Retinaldehyde (Vitamin A)
- Tocopheral (Vitamin E)
- Glycyrrhyzia Glabra (liquorice root extract)
- Camellia Senensis
- Tocopherol Linoleate
- Krameria Triandra Root Extract
Bespoke Skin Technology has combined some of the best antioxidants to provide your skin with these benefits.
Behold a complete index of all ingredients Bespoke Skin Technology harnesses to create the ultimate skin care regime.
When interpreting these ingredients, it’s important to understand esters; these are organic compounds made by replacing the hydrogen of an acid by an alkyl or other organic group. Many naturally occurring fats and essential oils are esters of fatty acids.